Calvin Buckley porting

Note: This is a guest post by Calvin Buckley (@NattyNarwhal on GitHub) introducing the community port of Mono to IBM AIX and IBM i. If you’d like to help with this community port please contact the maintainers on Gitter.

C# REPL running under IBM i

You might have noticed this in the Mono 5.12 release notes, Mono now includes support for IBM AIX and IBM i; two very different yet (mostly!) compatible operating systems. This post should serve as an introduction to this port.

What does it take to port Mono?

Porting Mono to a new operating system is not as hard as you might think! Pretty much the entire world is POSIX compliant these days, and Mono is a large yet manageable codebase due to a low number of dependencies, use of plain C99, and an emphasis on portability. Most common processor architectures in use are supported by the code generator, though more obscure ISAs will have some caveats.

Pretty much all of the work you do will be twiddling #ifdefs to accommodate for the target platform’s quirks; such as missing or different preprocessor definitions and functions, adding the platform to definitions so it is supported by core functionality, and occasionally having to tweak the runtime or build system to handle when the system does something completely differently than others. In the case of AIX and IBM i, I had to do all of these things.

Where would I be without IBM?

For some background on what needed to happen, we can start by giving some background on our target platforms.

Both of our targets run on 64-bit PowerPC processors in big endian mode. Mono does support PowerPC, and Bernhard Urban maintains it. What is odd about the calling conventions on AIX (shared occasionally by Linux) is the use of function descriptors, which means that pointers to functions do not point to code, but instead point to metadata about them. This can cause bugs in the JIT if you are not careful to consume or produce function descriptors instead of raw pointers when needed. Because the runtime is better tested on 64-bit PowerPC, and machines are fast enough that the extra overhead is not significant, we always build a 64-bit runtime.

In addition to a strange calling convention, AIX also has a different binary format - that means that currently, the ahead-of-time compiler does not work. While most Unix-like operating systems use ELF, AIX (and by extension, IBM i for the purposes of this port) use XCOFF, a subset of the Windows PE binary format.

AIX is a Unix (descended from the System V rather than the BSD side of the family) that runs on PowerPC systems. Despite being a Unix, it has some quirks of its own, that I will describe in this article.

Unix? What’s a Unix?

IBM i (formerly known as i5/OS or OS/400) is decidedly not a Unix. Unlike Unix, it has an object-based filesystem where all objects are mapped into a single humongous address space, backed on disk known as single level storage – real main storage (RAM) holds pages of objects “in use” and acts as a cache for objects that reside permanently on disk. Instead of flat files, IBM i uses database tables as the means to store data. (On IBM i, all files are database tables, and a file is just one of the “object types” supported by IBM i; others include libraries and programs.) Programs on IBM i are not simple native binaries, but instead are “encapsulated” objects that contain an intermediate form, called Machine Interface instructions, (similar to MSIL/CIL) that is then translated and optimized ahead-of-time for the native hardware (or upon first use); this also provides part of the security model and has allowed users to transition from custom CISC CPUs to enhanced PowerPC variants, without having to recompile their programs from the original source code.

This sounds similar to running inside of WebAssembly rather than any kind of Unix – So, then, how do you port programs dependent on POSIX? IBM i provides an environment called PASE (Portable Application Solutions Environment) that provides binary compatibility for AIX executables, for a large subset of the AIX ABI, within the IBM i. But Unix and IBM i are totally different; Unix has files and per-process address spaces, and IBM i normally does not, so how do you make these incongruent systems work?

To try to bridge the gap, IBM i also has an “Integrated File System” that supports byte-stream file objects in a true hierarchical file system directory hierarchy. For running Unix programs that expect their own address space, IBM i provides something called “teraspace” that provides a large private address space per process or job. This requires IBM i to completely changes the MMU mode and does a cache/TLB flush every time it enters and exits the Unix world, making system calls somewhat expensive; in particular, forking and I/O. While some system calls are not implemented, there are more than enough to port non-trivial AIX programs to the PASE environment, even with its quirks and performance limitations. You could even build them entirely inside of the PASE environment.

A port to the native IBM i environment outputting MI code with the ahead of time compiler has been considered, but would take a lot of work to write an MI backend for the JIT, use the native APIs in the runtime, and handle how the environment is different from anything else Mono runs on. As such, I instead PASE and AIX for the ease of porting existing POSIX compatible code.

What happened to port it?

The port came out of some IBM i users expressing an interest in wanting to run .NET programs on their systems. A friend of mine involved in the IBM i community had noticed I was working on a (mostly complete, but not fully working) Haiku port, and approached me to see if it could be done. Considering that that I now had experience with porting Mono to new platforms, and there was already a PowerPC JIT, I decided to take the challenge.

The primary porting target was IBM i, with AIX support being a by-product. Starting by building on IBM i, I set up a chroot environment to work in, (chroot support was added to PASE fairly recently), setting up a toolchain with AIX packages. Initial bring-up of the port happened on IBM i, up to the point where the runtime was built, but execution of generated code was not happening. One problem with building on IBM i, however, is that the performance limitations really start to show. While building took the same amount of time on the system I had access to (dual POWER6, taking about roughly 30 minutes to build the runtime) as AIX due to it mostly being computation, the configure script was extremely impacted due to its emphasis on many small reads and writes with lots of forking. Whereas it took AIX 5 minutes and Linux 2 minutes to run through the configure script, it took IBM i well over an hour to run through all of it. (Ouch!)

At this point, I submitted the initial branch as a pull request for review. A lot of back and forth went on to work on the underlying bugs as well as following proper style and practices for Mono. I set up an AIX VM on the machine, and switched to cross-compiling from AIX to IBM i; targeting both platforms with the same source and binary. Because I was not building on IBM i any longer, I had to periodically copy binaries over to IBM i, to check if Mono was using missing libc functions or system calls, or if I had tripped on some behaviour that PASE exhibits differently from AIX. With the improved iteration time, I could start working on the actual porting work much more quickly.

To help with matters where I was unsure exactly how AIX worked, David Edelsohn from IBM helped by explaining how AIX handles things like calling conventions, libraries, issues with GCC, and best practices for dealing with porting things to AIX.

What needed to change?

There are some unique aspects of AIX and the subset that PASE provides, beyond the usual #ifdef handling.

What did we start with?

One annoyance I had was how poor the GNU tools are on AIX. GNU binutils are effectively useless on AIX, so I had to explicitly use IBM’s binutils, and deal with some small problems related to autotools with environment variables and assumption of GNU ld features in makefiles. I had also dealt with some issues in older versions of GCC (which is actually fairly well supported on AIX, all things considered) that made me upgrade to a newer version. However, GCC’s “fixincludes” tool to try to mend GCC compatibility issues in system header files in fact mangled them, causing them to be missing some definitions found in libraries. (Sometimes they were in libc, but never defined in the headers in the first place!)

Improper use of function pointers was sometimes a problem. Based on the advice of Bernhard, there was a problem with the function descriptors #ifdefs, which had caused a mix-up interpreting function pointers as code. Once that had been fixed, Mono was running generated code on AIX for the first time – quite a sight to behold!

What’s a “naidnE?”

One particularly nerve-racking issue that bugged me while trying to bootstrap was with the Decimal type returning a completely bogus value when dividing, causing a non-sense overflow condition. Because of constant inlining, this occurred when building the BCL, so it was hard to put off. With some careful debugging from my friend, comparing the variable state between x86 and PPC when dividing a decimal, we had determined exactly where the incorrect endianness handling had taken place and I had came up with a fix.

While Mono has historically handled different endianness just fine, Mono has started to replace portions of its own home-grown BCL with CoreFX, (the open-source Microsoft BCL) and it did not have the same rigor towards endianness issues. Mono does patch CoreFX code, but it sometimes pulls in new code that has not had endianness (or other such possible compatibility issues) worked out yet and thus requires further patching. In this case, the code had already been fixed for big endian before, but pulling in updated code from CoreFX had created a new problem with endianness.


On AIX, there are two ways to handle libraries. One is your typical System V style linking with .so libraries; this isn’t used by default, but can be forced. The other way is the “native” way to do it, where objects are stored in an archive (.a) typically used for holding objects used for static linking. Because AIX always uses position-independent code, multiple objects are combined into a single object and then inserted into the archive. You can then access the library like normal. Using this technique, you can even fit multiple shared objects of the same version into a single archive! This took only minimal changes to support; I only had to adjust the dynamic library loader to tell it to look inside of archive files, and some build system tweaks to point it to the proper archive and objects to look for. (Annoyingly, we have to hardcode some version names of library objects. Even then, the build system still needs revision for cases when it assumes that library names are just the name and an extension.)

What’s “undefined behaviour?”

When Mono tries to access an object reference, and the reference (a pointer) is null, (that is, zero) Mono does not normally check to see if the pointer is null. On most operating systems, when a process accesses invalid memory such as a null pointer, it sends the process a signal (such as SIGSEGV) and if the program does not handle that signal, it will terminate the program. Normally, Mono registers a signal handler, and instead of checking for null, it would just try to dereference a null pointer anyways to let the signal handler interrupt and return an exception to managed code instead. AIX doesn’t do that – it lets programs dereference null pointers anyway! What gives?

Accessing memory via a null pointer is not actually defined by the ANSI C standards – this is a case of a dreaded undefined behaviour. Mono relied on the assumption that most operating systems did it in the typical way of sending a signal to the process. What AIX instead does is to implement a “null page” mapped at 0x0 and accepts reads and writes to it. (You could also execute from it, but since all zeroes is an invalid opcode on PowerPC, this does not do much but throw an illegal instruction signal at the process.) This is a historical decision, relating back to code optimizations implemented in older IBM compilers made where they used speculative execution in compiler-generated code during the 1980s for improved performance when evaluating complex logical expressions. Because we cannot rely on handling a signal to catch the null dereference, we can instead force the behaviour to always check if pointers are null, (normally reserved for runtime debugging) to be on all the time.

What’s so boring about TLS?

BoringSSL is required to get modern TLS required by newer websites. The build system, instead of autotools and make, is CMake based. Luckily, this worked fine on AIX, though I had to apply some massaging for it to do 64-bit library mangling. For a while, I was stumped by an illegal instruction error, that turned out to be due to not linking in pthread to the library, and it not warning about it.

It turns out that even though BoringSSL was now working, one cipher suite (secp256r1) was not, so sites using that cipher were broken. To try to test it, I had gone “yak shaving” to build what was needed for the test harness according to the README; Ninja and Go. I had a heck of a time trying to build Go on a PPC Linux system to triage, but as it turned out, I did not actually need it anyway – Mono had tweaked the build system so that it was not needed after all; I just had to flip a CMake flag to let it build the tests and run them manually. After figuring out what exactly was wrong, it turned out to be an endianness issue in an optimized path. A fix was attempted for it, but in the end, only disabling it worked and let the cipher run fine on big endian PowerPC. Since the code came from Google code that has been rewritten in both BoringSSL and OpenSSL upstream’s latest sources, it is due to be replaced the next time Mono’s BoringSSL fork gets updated.

What else?

I had an issue with I/O getting some spurious and strange issues with threading. Threads would complain that they had an unexpected errno of 0. (indicating success) What happened was that AIX does not assume that all programs are thread-safe by default, so errno was not thread-local. One small #define later, and that was fixed. (Miguel de Icaza was amused that some operating systems still consider thread safety to be an advanced feature. 🙂)

We also found a cosmetic issue with uname. Most Unices put their version in the release field of the uname structure, and things like the kernel type in the version field. AIX and PASE however, put the major version in the version field, and the minor version in the release field. A simple sprintf for the AIX case was enough to fix this.

PASE has many quirks – this necessitated some patches to work around deficiencies; from bugs to unimplemented functions. I aim to target IBM i 7.1 or newer, so I worked around some bugs that have been fixed in newer versions. A lot of this I cleaned up with some more preprocessor definitions.

What’s next?

Now that Mono runs on these platforms, there’s still a lot of work left to be done. The ahead of time compiler needs to be reworked to emit XCOFF-compatible code, libgdiplus needs to be ported, Roslyn is broken on ppc64be, continuous integration would be useful to detect build failures, the build system is still a bit weird regarding AIX libraries, and plenty more where that came from. Despite all this, the fact the port works well enough already in its current state should provide a solid foundation to work with, going forward.

Laurent Sansonetti runtime

As you may know we have been working on bringing Mono to the WebAssembly platform. As part of the effort we have been pursuing two strategies; one that uses the new Mono IL interpreter to run managed code at runtime, and one that uses full static (AOT) compilation to create one .wasm file that can be executed natively by the browser.

We intend the former to be used for quickly reloading C# code and prototyping and the latter for publishing your final application, with all the optimizations enabled. The interpreter work has now been integrated into Mono’s source code and we are using it to develop, port and tune the managed libraries to work on WebAssembly.

This post is about the progress that we have been making on doing static compilation of .NET code to run on WebAssembly.

mono-wasm in action

WebAssembly static compilation in Mono is orchestrated with the mono-wasm command-line tool. This program takes IL assemblies as input and generates a series of files in an output directory, notably an index.wasm file containing the WebAssembly code for your assemblies as well as all other dependencies (the Mono runtime, the C library and the mscorlib.dll library).

$ cat hello.cs
class Hello {
  static int Main(string[] args) {
    System.Console.WriteLine("hello world!");
    return 0;
$ mcs -nostdlib -noconfig -r:../../dist/lib/mscorlib.dll hello.cs -out:hello.exe
$ mono-wasm -i hello.exe -o output
$ ls output
hello.exe        index.html        index.js        index.wasm        mscorlib.dll

mono-wasm uses a version of the Mono compiler that, given C# assemblies, generates LLVM bitcode suitable to be passed to the LLVM WebAssembly backend. Similarly, we have been building the Mono runtime and a C library with a version of clang that also generates LLVM WebAssembly bitcode.

Until recently, mono-wasm was linking all the bitcode into a single LLVM module then performing the WebAssembly code generation on it. While this created a functional .wasm file, this had the downside of taking a significant amount of time (half a minute on a recent MacBook Pro) every time we were building a project as a lot of code was in play. Some of the code, the runtime bits and the mscorlib.dll library, never changed and yet were still being processed for WebAssembly code generation every time.

We were thrilled to hear in late November of last year that the LLVM linker (lld) was getting WebAssembly support.

Since then, we changed our mono-wasm tool to perform incremental compilation of project dependencies into separate .wasm files, and we integrated lld’s new WebAssembly driver in the tool. Thanks to this approach, we now perform WebAssembly code generation only when required, and in our testing builds now complete in less than a second once the dependencies (runtime bits and mscorlib.dll) have already been compiled into WebAssembly.

mono-wasm's new linking phase

Additionally, mono-wasm used to use the LLVM WebAssembly target to create source files that would then be passed to the Binaryen toolchain to create the .wasm code. We have been testing the backend’s ability to generate .wasm object files directly (with the wasm32-unknown-unknown-wasm triple) and so far it seems promising enough that we changed mono-wasm accordingly. We also noticed a slight decrease in build time.

  Old toolchain New toolchain (First Compile) New toolchain (Rebuild)
Full application build ~40s ~30s <1s
Hello World program ~40s <1s <1s

There is still a lot of work to do on bringing C# to WebAssembly, but we are happy with this new approach and the progresses we are making. Feel free to watch this space for further updates. You can also track the work on the mono-wasm GitHub repository.

For those of you that want to take this for a spin you can download a preview release, unzip and run “make” in the samples. This currently requires MacOS High Sierra to run.

Miguel de Icaza runtime

Mono is complementing its Just-in-Time compiler and its static compiler with a .NET interpreter allowing a few new ways of running your code.

In 2001 when the Mono project started, we wrote an interpreter for the .NET instruction set and we used this to bootstrap a self-hosted .NET development environment on Linux.

At the time we considered the interpreter a temporary tool that we could use while we built a Just-in-Time (JIT) compiler. The interpreter (mint) and the JIT engine (mono) existed side-by-side until we could port the JIT engine to all the platforms that we supported.

When generics were introduced, the engineering cost of keeping both the interpreter and the JIT engine was not worth it, and we did not see much value in the extra work to keep it around, so we removed the interpreter.

We later introduced full static compilation of .NET code. This is a technology that we introduced to target platforms that do not allow for dynamic code generation. iOS was the main driver for this, but it opened the doors to allow Mono to run on gaming consoles like the PlayStation and the Xbox.

The main downside of full static compilation is that a completely new executable has to be recreated every time that you update your code. This is a slow process and one that was not suitable for interactive development that is practiced by some.

For example, some game developers like to adjust and tweak their game code, without having to trigger a full recompilation. The static compilation makes this scenario impractical, so they resort to embedding a scripting language into their game code to quickly iterate and tune their projects.

This lack of .NET dynamic capabilities also prevented many interesting uses of .NET as a teaching or prototyping tool in these environments. Things like Xamarin Workbooks, or simple scripting could not use .NET languages and had to resort to other solutions on these platforms.

Frank Krueger, while building his Continuous IDE, needed such environment on iOS so much that he wrote his own .NET interpreter using F# to bring his vision of having a complete development environment for .NET on the iPad.

To address these issues, and to support some internal Microsoft products, we brought Mono’s interpreter back to life, and it is back with a twist.

New Mono Interpreter

We resuscitated Mono’s old interpreter and upgraded its .NET support, adding the support for generics and upgraded it to run .NET as it exists in 2017. Next is adding support for mixed-mode execution.

It is one of the ways that Mono runs on WebAssembly today for example (the other being the static compilation using LLVM)

The interpreter is now part of mainline Mono and it passes a large part of our extensive test suites, you can use it today when building Mono from source code, like this:

$ mono --interpreter yourassembly.exe

Mixed Mode Execution

While the interpreter alone is now in great shape, we are currently working on a configuration that will allow us to mix both interpreted code with statically compiled code or Just-in-Time compiled code, we call this mixed mode execution.

For platforms like iOS, PlayStation and Xbox, this means that you can precompile your core libraries or core application, and still support loading and executing code dynamically. Gaining the benefits of having all your core libraries optimized with LLVM, but still have the flexibility of running some dynamic code.

This will allow game developers to prototype, experiment and tweak their games using .NET languages on their system without having to recompile their applications.

It will open the doors for scriptable applications on device using .NET languages as well.

Future work

We are extending the capabilities of the interpreter to handle various interesting scenarios. These are some of the projects ahead of us:

Improvements for Statically Compiled Mono

The full ahead-of-time compilation versions of Mono (iOS, Consoles) do not ship with an implementation of System.Reflection.Emit. This made sense as the capability could not be supported, but now that we have an interpreter, we can.

There are several uses for this.

The System.Linq.Expressions API which is used extensively by many advanced scenarios like Entity Framework or by users leveraging the C# compiler to parse expressions into expression trees, you have probably seen the code in scenarios like this:

Expression sum = a + b;
var adder = sum.Compile ();
adder ();

In Full AOT scenarios, the way that we made Entity Framework and the above work was to ship an interpreter for the above Expression class. This expression interpreter has limitations, and is also a large one.

By enabling System.Reflection.Emit powered by the interpreter we can remove a lot of code.

This will also allow the scripting languages that have been built for .NET to work on statically compiled environments, like IronPython, IronRuby and IronScheme.

To allow this, we are completing the work for mixed-mode execution. That means that the interpreted code complements existing statically compiled .NET code.

Better Isolation

Earlier on this post, I mentioned that one of the idioms that we previously failed to address was the hot-reloading of code by developers that deployed their app and tweaked their game code (or their code for that matter) live.

We are completing our support for AppDomains to enable this scenario.

Researching Mixed Mode Options

The interpreter is a lighter option to run some code. We found that certain programs can run faster by being interpreted than being executed with the JIT engine.

We intend to explore a mixed mode of execution, sometimes called tiered compilation.

We could instruct the interpreter to execute code that is known to not be performance sensitive - for example, static constructors or other initialization code that only runs once to reduce both memory usage, generated code usage and execution time.

Another consideration is to run code in interpreted mode, and if we exceed some threshold switch to a JIT compiled implementation of the method, or use attributes to annotate methods that are worth the trouble and methods that are not worth the trouble optimizing.

Alexander Kyte gsoc

This Summer of Code, the Mono project had many exciting submissions. It’s been great to see what our applicants have been able to accomplish. Some were very familiar with the codebases they worked on, while others had to learn quickly. Let’s summarize how they spent this summer.

CppSharp Defect Removal And General Feature Work

Mohit Mohta and Kimon Topouzidis chose to address a number of bugs and add features to the code of CppSharp. Std::string was added, stacks were fixed, options were added, structure packing was added, and primitive types support was improved. They both seem to have learned a lot about the workflow of methodical debugging of systems code.

Clang Sanitizers

Many software bugs don’t result in immediate errors and crashes. Some corrupt program state in such a way that a cryptic error is seen much later. In the worst case, each such delayed crash may have a different stack trace. Many of these bugs have root causes that can be spotted in a running program the second they go wrong. The tooling to do so has only recently been able to spot race conditions, which can be some of the worst of these bugs. Clang has integrated a number of such sanitizers.

Armin Hasitzka chose to use clang’s runtime sanitizers for race conditions and for memory safety to automatically catch Mono bugs. In his efforts, he ran into false positives and legitimate bugs alike. He fixed a number of bugs, helped silence false positives, and left behind infrastructure to automatically catch regressions as they appear.

CppSharp Qt Bindings And Maintenance

Dimitar Dobrev is familiar to the Mono project. He has done the Google Summer of Code with Mono in 2015, and has helped maintain CppSharp since.

This summer, he sought to commit his time to developing the Qt bindings further. In the development of CppSharp, the problem of mapping C# types onto C++ generics arose. There were many potential solutions, but very few retained the feeling of the underlying API. After some experimentation, the hard problems were solved.

As the summer came to an end, he fixed the minor issues that arose during tests of QtSharp. The burden of maintaining the project and responding to bugs from the community did not stop for Dimiar, resulting in partial completion of milestones yet significant overall contribution. Development of QtSharp proceeds alongside his ongoing maintenance work and contributions.

MonoDevelop C/C++ Extension Feature Enhancements

The CBinding extension for MonoDevelop adds a lot of great functionality for working with C and C++ projects. It is still a work in progress, and Anubhav Singh wanted to add some more functionality. He focused on bringing support for Windows compilers and for CMake. He also chose this moment to update the extension to reflect the newer APIs of MonoDevelop. In the process, he had to begin the process of upstreaming some changes to MonoDevelop.

C# Compiler Caching with CSCache

Something often mentioned around a warm laptop with spinning fans is how nice C developers have it. CCache enables someone to recompile large C projects after minor modifications in a very small amount of time. Going beyond the build system skipping recompilation, the system compiler is wrapped by a program that spits back the old output in a fraction of the time that a compiler takes. This is a trick that managed languages haven’t learned until now.

Daniel Calancea created a tool which wraps mcs and understands the commands sent to it. If it is invoked with the same files and the same options twice, it checks that all of the hashes of all of the files are the same between runs. If so, it returns the output of the C# compiler the first time. Equally important is that this tool will return the same return codes as the first run, and will integrate as seamlessly into any build system as ccache does. It even reports the same warnings that the initial compiler did.

Daniel published this tool for Windows and Linux to Nuget.

Import of System.IO.Pipes.PipeStream from CoreFX

Mono’s implementation of System.IO.Pipes has historically not had some features available to the CLR. After msbuild was made open source, users found that Mono unfortunately could not build in parallel because of the API differences. CoreFX brought with it the promise of a System.IO.Pipes.PipeStream that would enable parallel msbuild. CoreFX’s API surface was not strictly a superset of Mono’s though. Mono implemented a couple of endpoints that CoreFX did not, and we used those endpoints in other places in the BCL.

Georgios Athanasopoulos chose to do the work required to make Mono work with CoreFX’s PipeStream. Modifying both CoreFX and Mono was required. Mono’s build system had to choose to use the new implementation files, rather than looking for them in the BCL directory. His work was a success. Finishing early, he chose to experimentally enable a parallel msbuild and test it. Things seem to be mostly working.

Lamdba Debugger Support

Often when debugging C# code in the middle of a large project, it’s important to invoke code to understand how variables are behaving in a segment of code. Sometimes, the code that one wishes to invoke hasn’t been written yet. The developer is left squinting at variables, invoking existing methods, and manually running code in their head. Much better would be to enable the developer to write a new function and invoke it on the variables in question. Interpreted languages offer support for this without much trouble usually because code doesn’t have as much metadata associated with it, and because they have integrated compilers for the debugged languages.

This summer, Haruka Matsumoto worked on a system that enables developers to use these arbitrary code snippets entered into the debugger. Mono runs the debugger and the debuggee in separate running instances of the runtime. As the running mono runtime for the application being debugged doesn’t have access to a C# compiler, this code has to be compiled by the debugger. The debugger uses Roslyn to compile the code segments, and this assembly is sent to the debugged application’s runtime.

This is made more difficult by the fact that the debugger is trying to run a Lambda that has access to the variables and methods defined in the functions the debugger is currently debugging. Shorter method names need to resolve to what they would if the original function had used them, and variables should be accessible by name. Issues with private types are potentially unsolvable without special casing, as mono prevents arbitrary code from modifying private fields. Haruka handled these and other difficult considerations, and delivered a very strong prototype of Lambda support in the integrated runtime debugger. It should be immediately useful for anybody who spends a lot of time using mono to debug C# code.

Import Synchronization Primitives from CoreRT

It is often the case that small differences in the implementations of core runtime functions can result in perceived bugs introduced by switching runtimes. The differences are due to depending on API behavior that may not be entirely defined by the specification, but works in a certain case on a certain machine. This sensitivity is nowhere more baffling to debug than around threading and synchronization primitives. The .NET Core Project contains an open-source, cross-platform implementation of C# synchronization primitives. We expect this to receive much community development and user testing. We hoped to import them to gain both consistent behavior and quality.

This summer, Alexander Efremov imported EventWaitHandle, AutoResetEvent, ManualResetEvent, Mutex and Semaphore into Mono. He both manually integrated these libraries into Mono and automated the process of building them. System.Private.CoreLib.Native was successfully added to mono. System.Threading was identified as the next API to import, in order to enable importing Thread from CoreFX.

Alex Rønne Petersen profiler, runtime

As part of our ongoing efforts to improve Mono’s profiling infrastructure, in Mono 5.6, we will be shipping an overhaul of Mono’s profiler API. This is the part of Mono’s embedding API that deals with instrumenting managed programs for the purpose of collecting data regarding allocations, CPU usage, code coverage, and other data produced at runtime.

The old API had some limitations that prevented some features and capabilities from being implemented. The upgrade to the API will allow us to:

  • Reconfigure the profiling features at runtime
  • Look at the values of incoming parameters and return values.
  • Ability to instrument the managed allocators, thus allowing these to be profiled.

This is what we did.

Reconfigure Profiling at Runtime

We wanted the ability to reconfigure the profiling option at runtime. This was not possible with the old API because none of the API functions took an argument representing the profiler whose options should be changed.

This means that it was only possible to change options of the most recently installed profiler, and this was not guaranteed to be the one you wanted. Additionally, doing so it was not thread safe.

Why would we want to change profiling options at runtime, you might wonder? Suppose you know that only a particular area of your program has performance issues and you’re only interested in data gathered while your program is executing that code. With this capability, you can turn off profiling features such as allocations and statistical sampling until you get to the point you want to profile, and then turn them on programmatically. This can significantly reduce the noise caused by unneeded data in a profiling session.

Call Context Introspection

Call context introspection allows a profiler to instrument the prologue and/or epilogue of any method and gain access to arguments (including the this reference), local variables, and the return value.

This opens up countless possibilities for instrumenting framework methods to learn how a program is utilizing facilities like the thread pool, networking, reflection and so on. It can also be useful for debugging, especially if dealing with assemblies for which the source code is not available.

Instrumenting Managed Allocators

Another improvement we were able to make thanks to the redesigned API was to use instrumented managed allocators when profiling. In the past, we would disable managed allocators entirely when profiling. This would slow down allocation-heavy programs significantly. Now, we insert a call back to the profiler API at the end of managed allocators if profiling is enabled.

Simpler to Work With

On top of these major features, the new API is also simply more pleasant to use. In particular, you no longer have to worry about setting event flags; you simply install a callback and you will get events. Also, you no longer have to use callback installation functions which take multiple callback arguments. Every kind of callback now has exactly one function to install it. This means you will no longer have code such as mono_profiler_install_assembly (NULL, NULL, load_asm, NULL); where it can be unclear which argument corresponds to which callback. Finally, several unused, deprecated, or superseded features and callbacks have been removed.

Breaking Change

The new API completely replaces the old one, so this is a breaking change. We try very hard to not break API/ABI compatibility in Mono’s embedding API, but after much consideration and evaluation of the alternatives, a breaking change was deemed to be the most sensible way forward. To aid with the transition to the new API, Mono will detect and refuse to load profiler modules that use the old API. Developers who wish to support both the old and new APIs by compiling separate versions of their profiler module may find the new MONO_PROFILER_API_VERSION macro useful.

A presentation with more details is available in PowerPoint and PDF formats.