It's important to note that any language that compiles to pure IL should work under Mono. Some languages such as Microsoft's Managed C++ do not always compile to pure IL, so they will not always work as expected, since they are not truly platform independent.
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The main C# compiler of the Mono Project is mcs. It covers all the features in C# 3.0 (2.6) and 4.0 (preview), including 3.0 Linq and 4.0 dynamic. As of today, 'gmcs' is the default compiler based on 2.0 runtime profile, and 'dmcs' is for 4.0 runtime profile.
Java applications can run in Mono, see the Java page for more details.
Boo is a statically-typed language supporting dynamic scripting and meta-programming capabilities (extensible compiler, extensible syntax, macros...) with a syntax similar to Python. For details on the particular language features see the Boo Language Features page.
Nemerle is a new hybrid (functional, object-oriented and imperative) programming language for the .NET platform. It is available from www.nemerle.org.
See our BASIC Language page for more details.
There are two possible choices here: PythonNet and IronPython.
PythonNet: Brian Lloyd wrote a bridge to link the Python runtime with the .NET runtime. More information on the PS.NET project can be found here. This uses the real Python engine and provides a bridge between the Python world and the .NET world to interoperate.
IronPython: is Jim Hugunin's compiler for Python, it is a complete implementation of Python from scratch that compiles Python code into native CIL. More information is available on the IronPython site
For more details see JScript
Check out Oberon for .NET project.
Thanks to the work of Raphael Romeikat, the encouragement of Thomas Uhl and the funding from Google's Summer of Code 2005 a PHP compiler has been developed, for more information see:
RemObjects ships an object pascal compiler. Their product is supported in both .NET and Mono.
Their Delphi Prism compiler support Mono out of the box.
Lua2Il is a compiler that will allow you to run your existing Lua code or reuse the existent expertise you have on Lua in your application and run it with the Mono JIT compiler.
Cobra both codes fast and runs fast. It also has language-level support for software quality.
Cobra combines productivity-boosting features that are otherwise scattered across multiple languages.
Supporting GCC languages
In 2006, the Gcc4cil project was publicly announced. For now it supports the C language but it could be extended to support more gcc front ends.
Here is a list of a few languages that we would like to see supported. We will try to maintain a set of links here with technical information for those interested in porting, implementing or adapting a compiler for any of these languages:
LCC 4.2 has been recently released. This release adds support for compiling ANSI C programs to CIL. Note that the CIL support only works on Win32 right now, but should be easy to convert to Mono/other architectures.
LCC is not an open source compiler, but it is free as long as you do not profit from selling it.
Ruby.Net from Queensland University.
The compiler can be used to statically compile a Ruby source file into a verifiable .NET v2.0 assembly or it can be used to directly execute a Ruby source file (compile, load and execute).
IronRuby from Wilco Bauwer, includes an interactive Ruby Console and works with Mono.
A# is an ADA compiler for the CIL platform, it can be downloaded from: here
Other PHP Efforts
PHP for Mono an effort that was funded by the Google Summer of Code and continues moving forward.
Old PHP efforts
Phalanger is a fairly complete PHP to CLI compiler that can even integrate with VS 2003 for console PHP applications.
There is an older effort by Sterling to allow PHP developers to use Mono code, see this site.
Languages which are believed to work, but have not had a complete run of all their regression tests:
A subset of Scheme language called Tachy
DotNetPowered.com have a list of a lot of .net languages.
Language Comparison - A simple comparison of some languages can be used with the Mono platform